Fungi are eukaryotic organisms with a cell wall made up of chitins, glucans and mannans. The plasma membrane contains ergosterol, which is a sterol that is targeted by several antifungal drugs. Fungal infections in horses are relatively uncommon, although geographic prevalence is highly variable.
Axons of the upper motor neuron (UMN) extrapyramidal and vestibular systems travel from cell bodies throughout the brain and pass predominantly in reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts to lower motor neurons (LMN) in the ventral and intermediate columns of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
The brainstem includes the diencephalon, mesencephalon (midbrain), and rhombencephalon (hindbrain). With the exception of the olfactory nerves (I), all cranial nerves are arrayed along the brainstem. The hindbrain is divided into metencephalon (cerebellum) and myelencephalon (pons and medulla oblongata).
One of the critical functions of the reticular formation of the brainstem is activation of the cerebral cortex for the awake state. This component of the formation, known as the ascending reticular activating system (ARAS), is an ill-defined meshwork of cells concentrated in the rostral brainstem that receives afferent input from all parts of the CNS and projects excitatory stimuli cortically.
Endoscopic examination of the mare's uterus is primarily used as tool to aid in the diagnosis of unusual conditions, such as intractable infections, tumors, abscesses, foreign bodies, adhesions, and congenital abnormalities.
Reproductive problems of stallions occur frequently and may be related to physiologic, pathologic, and management processes. Relatively few colts are kept as stallions in the equine industry, and veterinarians may not have a great deal of exposure or experience with stallions.
Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is common in performance horses and in foals. Diagnosis of EGUS is based on history, clinical signs, endoscopic examination, and response to treatment. All ages and breeds of horses are susceptible to EGUS and current therapeutic strategies focus on blocking gastric acid secretion and raising stomach pH.
Endometritis is the most common infectious pathologic condition affecting the uterus in brood mares. Pathologic endometritis is an abnormal extension of a physiologic process. In the pathologic form excessive inflammation of the endometrium occurs and then persists.
High risk mares are mares that are at significant risk of problems during pregnancy. This includes mares that are of advanced age, repeated history of unsuccessful foaling outcomes, mares with twin pregnancies, mares that have experienced a significant toxemia, or that suffer significant physical infirmaries including chronic founder, severe arthritis, or body wall injuries or mares that have placentitis,.
Neonatal isoerythrolysis occurs when the foal inherits blood antigens (types) from the stallion that are different from that of the mare. As a result, the mare may produce antibodies to these antigens, which are then concentrated in her colostrum.