Sperm quality is the culmination of a variety of factors such as the total sperm number, sperm motility, sperm morphology, and sperm fertilizing ability. Presently in an assessment of the quality of a stallion's ejaculate, it is often based only on the volume, motility, and concentration of the sperm. These are relatively easy parameters to quantify.
Equine infectious diseases continue to emerge and re-emerge, infecting horses across the US and beyond. For the purpose of this discussion, we will discuss equine piroplasmosis (EP), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and Lyme Disease in the horse.
Fermentation in the hindgut of the horse is similar to that in the rumen, resulting in the production of short-chain volatile fatty acids mainly acetic, propionic and butyric acids. The proportions of these acids are influenced by the availability and type of substrate, composition of the microbial community and the hindgut physiologic conditions.
Equine Cushings Disease (Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction [PPID]) is a disorder that likely affects more than half the population of horses aged 14 years and older. If unmanaged, affected horses are at risk for laminitis and insulin resistance (IR) and are immune-suppressed, increasing their risk of numerous infections.
Vaccination is a critical component of an equine health maintenance program. Veterinarians play a crucial role in client education, risk assessment, and herd evaluation to determine which vaccination program is best suited for an individual horse or herd. Selection of vaccinations must take into account the horse's age, sex, geographic location, use of the horse, pregnancy status, risk for developing disease, and associated costs of immunization to the client.
Foaling problems are very stressful for most practitioners, mares, and horse owners. The maternal and fetal outcomes during dystocia are less successful for the mare compared to other species. An understanding of the underlying causes and strategies to remedy dystocia are essential for a successful outcome.
Endoscopic examination in the stallions is indicated in cases where blood (hemospermia), pus or (pyspermia) in the semen or urine, treatment for seminal vesiculitis, pain on ejaculation, or there is an inability to emit semen.
Hormonal management of mares is used to manipulate the onset of the breeding season, the timing of ovulation and in performance mares the prevention of estrus. Pasture breeding, hand breeding using teasing with estrus detection by a stallion, and artificial insemination (AI) of cooled and frozen semen are still commonly used in Canada.
Mechanical injuries to peripheral nerves occur because of compression, entrapment, transection, laceration, ischemia, crushing, stretching, or chemical or burn damage. Neurapractic lesions are characterized by a failure of conduction of the action potential across the injured axonal segment.