• Oral gastric protectants. Once vomiting has stopped carafate and famotidine and even Peptibismol may be indicated.
• Withhold food? In fact, the earlier dogs with clinical parvovirus are fed (even by using enteral feeding tubes), the quicker
is their recovery and the better they maintain their body weight.
• Parenteral nutrition - intravenously. Risk of systemic infection is very high. Only give during the recovery stage when
the leukogram is normalizing.
• Corticosteroids? Only in severe shock and only one dose. Use is highly questionable.
• Non-steroid anti-inflammatory agents (flunixin meglumine) - rarely indicated. Some advocate giving with fluids at 1mg/kg.
• Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. When administered to neutropenic pups with CPV enteritis, it did not change any aspect
of clinical outcome.
• Recombinant feline interferon-omega. When given (1 mega units/kg/day, IV, for 3 days) to 3-4 mth-old beagles 4 days after
experimental infection, the severity of enteritis was improved in some of the dogs.
• BPI protein. A recombinant bactericidal-permeability-increasing protein which counteracts endotoxin – not shown to alter
the clinical outcome or survival at all, even when plasma endotoxin levels increase in treated animals.
• Blood/plasma. Indicated if severe hypoproteinemia. Usually short-lived but may save the dogs life. The administration of
antiendotoxin hyperimmune plasma has been shown in one study to decrease both mortality and the length of hospitalization
in dogs with CPV enteritis. Hyperimmune serum or immunoglobulin has been tried but few controlled studies have been conducted.
In these studies, it has been difficult to separate the beneficial effects of protein as opposed to immunoglobin that binds
virus or endotoxins.
• Monitor closely: clinical signs (palpate the abdomen daily), dehydration (PCV, TP, urine SpG, body weight), electrolytes
(K, Na), renal function (BUN/creatinine), glucose, blood smear for WBC numbers.
• Try to avoid doing surgery on recovering dogs as they are at great risk of post-operative wound break down and infections.
• Disinfect premises (1:30 solution of 5% sodium hypochlorite is effective in a few minutes). Strict sanitation, isolate pups
till reach 3 months of age.
• Carrier state has not been demonstrated in the dog. CPV-2 is shed for less than 2 weeks after infection.
• Vaccination schedule is essential in at-risk populations.
• Even though apparent break down in vaccine efficacy against CPV-2c virus has been reported in a kennel of dogs from Italy,
experimental evidence suggests that current vaccines against CPV-2b (MLV vaccine Galaxy DA2PPv; Schering-Plough Animal Health),
and CPV-2 (MLV vaccine Continuum DAP, Intervet) protect against CPV-2c. Similar findings from UK.
Larson LJ, Schultz RD. Do two current canine parvovirus type 2 and 2b vaccines provide protection against the new type 2c
variant? Vet Therapy, 9(2):94-101, 2008.
Goddard A, Leisewitz AL, Christopher MM et al. Prognostic usefulness of blood leukocyte changes in canine parvoviral enteritis. J Vet Intern Med, 22:309-316, 2008.