WASHINGTON — With last month's five-year anniversary of 9/11, officials say preparation for a bioterrorism attack remains on high alert.
The U.S. government's goals haven't changed, but the plans are becoming increasingly sophisticated.Championing the integration of more than 30 biosurveillance information streams is a veterinarian, epidemiologist and anthrax expert Kimothy Smith, who says simply of this country's counter-terrorism measures: "This is a team sport."
Smith's post-9/11 career has taken him from Keim Genetics Laboratory at Northern Arizona University to assembling the world's Bacillus anthracis collection to co-investigating the now-famed 2001 anthrax bioterrorism letters sent to five U.S. lawmakers to his current role as chief veterinarian and acting deputy chief medical officer in the Department of Homeland Security (DHS).
Now, his top goal is to help implement the National Biosurveillance Integration System (NBIS), a sort of early-warning system described as inter-governmental, inter-agency driven and certainly an enormous challenge currently in development.
"It is unprecedented to share this type of data across agencies," Smith tells DVM Newsmagazine. "We understand that we have to build a culture of trust. These agencies need to trust us with sensitive, often classified, information that they have never been accustomed to sharing outside their own organizations before."
"Situational awareness" is what NBIS strives to deliver. Data-driven and analyzed by a corps of experts, this biosurveillance system becomes an information reservoir to at least 30 information streams from agriculture, public health, environmental monitoring and the intelligence community.
One data stream might come from Project BioWatch, which conducts aerosol environmental sampling in metropolitan areas. Another source might come from animal health and food surveillance sources like the Electronic Laboratory Exchange Network, yet another might track reported data in human hospitals.
Smith explains, "By integrating and fusing this large amount of available information we can begin to develop a baseline or background against which we can recognize anomalies and changes of significance indicating potential biological events, whether naturally occurring or from malicious intent," Smith told Congress this year.
"The use of epidemiology tools and forensic investigation to combat terrorism is fascinating, and obviously the field of microbial genetic forensics is still in its infancy," he adds.
The private practitioner and former beef cattle rancher, now turned vegetarian, knows the importance veterinarians play in any early warning of an intentional or accidental introduction of serious foreign animal disease.
"The first person to recognize or suspect that we have a foreign animal disease probably will be a veterinarian," he adds. "The diagnostics for a foreign animal disease or potentially even avian influenza likely is going to be done in a veterinary diagnostic laboratory, many of which are associated with veterinary colleges. But the public health aspects, as well as any zoonotic diseases whether it's anthrax, plague or pandemic influenza, veterinarians are trained and well-suited to serve in public health capacity."
Topping the list
So what's the top threat? Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), Smith says.
One isolated case would hobble export markets.
Trade restrictions would occur immediately, and the subsequent shock wave from just one case would last for years.
An investigation would ensue. U.S. negotiations with the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) would begin if the case was contained and regionalized.