The issue: Most canine behavioral problems either involve normal behaviors that people don't like or understand or anxiety-related
concerns that comprise true behavioral diagnoses. The foundation for treating any canine behavioral concern relies on:
- Understanding "normal"
- Identifying and mitigating risk
- Communicating well with the dog
- Reading the dog's signals
- Meeting the dog's needs.
And yet, the main advice that too many veterinarians and trainers still give to clients completely ignores this foundation
and instead appears focused only on the human's needs:
- "You must dominate the dog!"
- "You must exert control and show the dog who is boss!"
- "You must be alpha to the dog!"
- "You must ensure that the dog submits to you!"
Is this anthropocentric focus really necessary, and does it truly reflect our history with dogs?
The answer to both of these questions: absolutely not. The entire concept of dominance as applied to pet dogs is almost always
based on a profound misunderstanding of the shared history of dogs and humans.
The unique relationship between dogs and humans
Dogs have a relationship with humans unlike that of any other domestic animal. Dogs have been selected over time for true
collaborative work with humans, and such selection has historically resulted in dog breeds and the attendant breed groupings.
The molecular data support that dogs separated from wolves from as recently as 15,000 years ago to as long as 135,000 years
ago. Molecular and anthropological data support that dogs of different morphologies that were likely engaged in different
tasks have lived together with humans for at least 15,000 years. Stand-alone anthropological evidence supports that dogs have
lived intimately with humans for at least 30,000 years. For at least the past 2,000 years, there have been well-defined breed
groups, composed of dogs of different shapes and sizes that engaged in related tasks.
Much of the physical variation in dog breeds is a consequence of overt selection for specific suites of behaviors that have
a co-varying physical aspect. For example, coat type may depend on the type of behavior desired—field trial or working and
show English springer spaniels look like completely different breeds, and only one of them can readily scramble through brambles.
Our unique relationship with dogs may be due to convergent evolution of canid and human social systems that was the result
of like groups meeting and recognizing the power of collaborative efforts, followed by secondarily derived, homologous changes
in brain function that have allowed modern humans and dogs to truly rely on each other.
Behavioral patterns shared by dogs and humans
Both humans and canids:
- Live in extended family groups
- Provide extensive parental care
- Share care of young with both related and unrelated group members
- Give birth to altricial (completely dependent, immature) young that require large amounts of early care and sustained amounts
of later social interaction
- Nurse for an extended period before weaning to semisolid food (dogs do this by regurgitation; humans use baby food, but the
concept is the same)
- Have extensive vocal and nonvocal communication
- Have a sexual maturity that precedes social maturity.
Among the characteristics of social behavior that dogs share with humans is that their social systems are based in deference.
Additionally, associated signaling is often redundant, and most signaling or affirmation of signaling is nonvocal rather than
Recent data indicate that dogs are also comparable with humans with regard to the complex social cognition involved in understanding
long-distance signals that indicate where food is hidden. Dogs are further able to communicate this information to other dogs.
Dogs appear to have the ability to "fast map"—to make deductions about object class, name and action without having learned
them—and to communicate this ability to humans. Like humans, dogs suffer from what we recognize as maladaptive anxiety—that
which interferes with normal functioning.
Finally, when examining the rates of gene expression mutations in regional brain tissue, the only species studied to date
that has comparable rates with those found in humans is the domestic dog. Such data, when taken together, suggest that humans
and dogs have been working partners and companions in profound ways.