Last month, we looked at common culprits as well as the prevalence and clinical signs of food allergies in dogs and cats.
But definitively diagnosing a food allergy in dogs and cats remains a challenge. Unfortunately, the only current method to
accurately identify patients with food allergies is to perform an elimination diet trial for a sufficient time while controlling
all concurrent allergies and secondary infections. This is easier said than done. Both intradermal allergy testing and serologic
testing for food allergies remain unreliable, with both false positive and false negative results occurring.1
Three types of diets are available in a veterinary dermatology setting. Novel protein and hydrolyzed protein diets are useful
for the diagnosis and long-term management of patients with food allergies. Therapeutic diets are formulated with higher and
"balanced" levels of omega 3 and 6 fatty acids and are most useful for patients with atopic dermatitis. They will not necessarily
be formulated with novel proteins. Most of the major manufacturers of therapeutic dog foods now provide a line of "hypoallergenic"
Choosing a diet for the trial
There is no foolproof "works every time" test diet. Choosing the best diet to feed a patient with a suspected food allergy
requires careful and detailed questioning of the client regarding previous and current diets, treats and flavored medications.
Once that information is known, you must choose a diet that 1) consists of proteins to which the patient has not had exposure,
2) has minimal chance of cross reactions with previously fed proteins, 3) will be eaten by the patient and 4) will be readily
fed by the client. Because of all these factors, rabbit, kangaroo and, occasionally, fish are the first diets of choice for
most patients with suspected food allergies. You should also be confident that the manufacturer of the food has truly kept
the food limited to what is stated on the label and not allowed contamination with other feeds or proteins.
In addition to determining which novel protein is appropriate for the test diet, it is also necessary to counsel the owners
on what to avoid feeding. We frequently deal with situations in which the owners have fed an appropriate test diet but continued
to feed treats and protein-based supplements. Some patients with food allergies will flare or continue to exhibit clinical
signs simply from beef- or pork-based additives in chewable medications.
Hydrolyzed diets are also available, with hydrolyzed chicken- and soy-based foods being the most common. Several published
studies have reported the majority of patients fed hydrolyzed diets have improvement in clinical signs, even if they are allergic to the parent protein. Yet
other studies show up to 50 percent of patients with food allergies flare or fail to improve while eating a hydrolyzed diet.2 In 2010, a report summarized all the various (and sometimes conflicting) articles on the subject and concluded hydrolyzed
diets should not be used if a patient could potentially be hypersensitive to the parent (nonhydrolyzed) protein.2 I prefer novel proteins for the test phase. Occasionally, a cat with a food allergy will refuse to eat novel proteins, and
hydrolyzed chicken diets are the second choice. Because of limited availability of some of the novel protein diets, once a
patient has improved after eating a novel protein diet, I will recommend a challenge with a hydrolyzed diet (soy or chicken)
since these diets are always available and not subject to back orders.