Today's veterinary practice owners wisely are devising short-term strategies for managing operational expenses such as payroll
and supply costs. However, it's also important to think about long-term cost-cutting tactics. Why? Because there's a good
chance that inflation will eventually return as interest rates are adjusted upwards and the costs of goods and services rise.
Savvy stewards of veterinary practice finances are anticipating interest-rate hikes and working hard to renegotiate loans
to fix long-term interest rates at today's historically low levels. But what about other contracts, such as real estate, that
might be affected by inflation?
Real estate rental
A veterinary practice lease agreement on real estate can have different flavors depending on who owns the building. Many practice
owners rent real estate from the same individuals who own the practice in what might casually be termed a self-rental.
For example, Dr. Jane owns 100 percent of the veterinary practice's equity as well as 100 percent of the land and building
the practice occupies. Or Dr. Jane and Dr. Bob own the practice, but only Dr. Jane owns the real estate, which she rents to
the jointly owned veterinary hospital.
Another scenario entails real estate that is rented from related parties. For instance, Dr. Jane doesn't own the real estate;
her DVM grandfather, who sold the practice but not the building, rents to her.
A final scenario — an "arm's length" arrangement — involves a practice owner renting from a third party completely unrelated
to the practice owners. Shopping center rentals are a classic example.
No matter the housing situation, though, the real question is: How is the agreement structured, and is it favorable for all
Lease agreement structures
Lease agreements for rented veterinary practice real estate usually include escalation clauses. These provide for a regular
recalculation of rent. They're usually tied to a monetary inflation indicator, such as the Consumer Price Index (CPI). Other
indicators include the Consumer Price Index for all Urban Consumers (CPI-U) and the Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners
and Clerical Workers (CPI-W). (Visit bls.gov/news.release/cpi.nr0.htm for a recent summary of CPI calculations.)
Often, a lease agreement requires an annual adjustment for the change in the CPI during the prior year, but it can be calculated
as often as monthly or as infrequently as every five years or longer. The longer a practice delays a rent adjustment, the
less compounding of the increase. So from a renter's prospective, the longer the period of change between increases, the better.
Inflation and the CPI
A substantial CPI increase can have immediate ramifications for a practice whose rent is adjusted periodically for inflation.
The chart "Consumer price index for urban consumers" spans 1970 through 2010 for changes in the CPI-U. You can see that during
the past 15 years, we have enjoyed relatively low increases, with the most recent spike occurring in mid-2008 as energy prices
soared in conjunction with variable prices. Even so, the highest annual increase in recent years was roughly 5 percent in
Table1: Consumer price index for urban consumers
Prior to that, the index breached 5 percent in October 1990. Those sorts of changes are manageable for many business owners,
but look back a bit further into history at other post-recession periods. For example, in March and April 1980, CPI peaked
at about 14 percent, demonstrating that escalations happen rapidly. And in 1974 and 1975, peak increases of greater than 10
percent were recorded.
Indeed, contracts tied strictly to the CPI could be seriously challenging in the future. Using 1980 as an example, a lease
agreement of $50,000 per year would increase to $57,300 in 1981. History suggests that jumps in CPI could cause significant
cash flow problems when contracts are tied to the index.