Among the most basic types of credit used by veterinary practices and other small businesses is the line of credit, or revolving
loan — simply a loan agreement with the paper work and approval process already completed. Many veterinarians rely on such
financing to help bridge inevitable slow periods or cash shortfalls.
A recent study by the Government Accountability Office (GAO), Congress' watchdog, showed that banks currently have made more
than $1 trillion in credit available nationwide to businesses through lines of credit.
But the cost of such credit soon may rise, as the effects of an international banking accord kick in.
Just how important is revolving credit to your veterinary practice? Why would an international banking accord have an effect
on the availability and cost of such an arrangement with a local bank?
Here is some basic information to help answer both questions:
A line of credit
A line of credit is an agreement between a commercial bank and a veterinary practice, stating the amount of unsecured, short-term
credit the bank will make available to the borrower should it be needed. It is not a guaranteed loan. It typically is a one-year
contract under which the bank — if sufficient funds are available — agrees to lend the veterinarian, or his or her practice,
up to a stated maximum amount of money.
A line of credit helps speed the borrowing process for all concerned because the bank does not have to examine the creditworthiness
of the veterinary practice each time it borrows.
For guaranteeing availability, the bank usually charges a commitment fee based on the unused balance. Interest is charged
for the time the money is in use.
A line-of-credit loan probably is the one permanent loan arrangement every veterinary practice should have with its bank,
because it protects borrowers from emergencies and stalled cash flow. Such loans usually flow into a practice's checking account
to cover checks written to purchase supplies, cover operating costs, for working capital and other business-cycle needs.
They are not intended for purchases of equipment or real estate.
Line-of-credit loans often carry the lowest interest rate a bank offers because they are viewed as fairly low-risk. Some banks
include a clause that gives them the right to cancel the loan if they think a borrower is in jeopardy.
Interest payments are made monthly and the principal is paid off at the practice's convenience.
Many experts say it is prudent to make frequent payments on the principal, as an indication that the veterinarian or his or
her practice is earning a reasonable income.
Many line-of-credit loans are renewed automatically for an annual fee. Some banks require that credit lines be paid off for
at least seven, or up to 30, days during each contract year.
International impact on borrowing
Anyone considering setting up a credit line should act soon, because a recent international banking accord may affect the
fees charged for these loans and other transactions.
For years, regulations allowed banks — even encouraged them — to offer short-term credit products such as so-called "364-day
Because banks did not have to maintain capital reserves against such loans, they usually were offered at attractive rates.
Some banks even used them as loss leaders to attract new customers. But the adoption of a new international banking accord,
called Basel II, and its requirement that banks must start setting aside capital against short-term loans in 2007, the glory
days of this short-term financing may be limited.
Some banks already are implementing the required changes. Experts warn that every veterinarian should think about the consequences
now, because banks may seek to pass on costs through "increased expenses" clauses that most loan agreements contain.
There is increasing evidence that in some cases — particularly if you happen to be a small or mid-size business or your credit
rating is either non-existent or has seen better days — the bottom-line for Basel II could be tighter credit and higher rates.