Talk about last-minute changes in tax laws that will affect veterinarians and their practices. In October, Congress passed
and — 90 minutes later — the President signed into law a historic financial-markets rescue bill — the Emergency Economic Stabilization
Act of 2008 (EESA).
Although its primary purpose is to help resolve the credit crunch in the financial markets, it's also one of the largest tax
bills in recent years.
It enacted almost 300 changes to tax laws, creating tax breaks expected to save taxpayers a whopping $150 billion. The new
law includes a much-anticipated alternative minimum tax (AMT) "patch," an extensive package of tax extenders, energy incentives,
disaster relief and much more.
Designed specifically for small businesses and professionals who are, according to lawmakers, the ones with large amounts
of deposits at risk, a portion of the bailout bill raised the FDIC and National Credit Union Share Insurance Fund deposit
insurance limits from $100,000 per account to $250,000. But these increased levels expire after 2009.
More than 30 tax breaks that either expired at the end of 2007 or are soon to expire were extended under the act. Not all
affect DVMs. Some might even appear frivolous, but others clearly will affect veterinarians and their practices, including
The bill boosts the Alternative Minimum Tax (AMT) exemption for individuals for 2008, while allowing personal nonrefundable
credits to offset AMT and regular tax. In other words, the bill increases the income threshold where people begin to feel
the effects of the AMT.
Although designed to prevent the wealthy from avoiding paying taxes, it has affected an increasing number of middle-class
taxpayers, too, because it was not indexed for inflation. Each year, Congress passed a series of "patches" to boost the threshold.
To hold the number of taxpayers subject to the AMT at bay, Congress increased the 2008 AMT exemption for individuals to $46,200
(from $33,750) and that for married persons filing jointly to $69,950 (from $45,000). The law allows personal credits against
the AMT, producing estimated savings of almost $62 billion over 10 years.
Earlier tax-law changes shortened the cost-recovery period for leased-property improvements by a veterinary practice or business
from 39 to 15 years. The new law extends that tax break to the end of 2009.
Similarly, Congress authorized a 15-year recovery for depreciation of certain improvements to retail space. The write-off
applies to owner-occupied practices and businesses, as well as leased establishments.
Energy tax savings
The new law extends several energy-efficiency and energy property-tax incentives through 2013. Among them:
» An eight-year extension of the investment tax credits for expenditures for solar energy, as well as breaks for wind,
geothermal and other alternative sources.
A tax credit offsets one's tax bill, as opposed to a deduction, which merely reduces taxable income.
» A tax deduction for making a commercial building more energy-efficient. The deduction is not for the cost of equipment
or improvements, but is set at $1.80 per square foot of floor area for buildings achieving a 50 percent energy-savings target.
The savings must be accomplished through power-cost reductions for heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water and interior lighting
Reduced deductions are available for veterinary practices achieving smaller energy efficiencies.
New markets tax credit
In today's credit crunch, extension of the new markets tax credit through 2009 may help practices secure financing that otherwise
might be difficult. Created to increase investment in low-income communities, the credit equals 39 percent of the investment
over seven years.