As I write this, litigation is taking place in Texas that brings the issue of damages from "pain and suffering" back to the
front burner of animal law. Specifically, consider the decision of the Texas Court of Appeals (Fort Worth) in the matter of
Medlen v. Strickland decided in November 2011.
In summary, Kathryn and Jeremy Medlen's dog escaped from their yard and was later picked up by animal control. The owners
went to the shelter to claim their dog but it had been euthanized by mistake prior to their arrival. Defendant Strickland
was the shelter employee who negligently marked the Medlen dog for euthanasia. (The owners had called well ahead of the erroneous
euthanasia to let the shelter know they were coming to pay the fine and reclaim the dog.)
The Medlens sued the employee, asking for not only the "market value" of the dog but also damages based on "sentimental value."
The trial court denied these noneconomic damages based on two legal principles established in Texas since the 19th century:
1) Dogs are personal property, and sentimental-value recovery is not available for personal property except in unique, legally
defined instances, and 2) Texas case law does not provide that dogs are one of the types of personal property qualifying for
such special damages.
The Texas Court of Appeals overturned the trial court's refusal to allow sentimental-value damages and remanded the case back
to the trial judge with instructions to allow this type of recovery (damages above the dog's market value).
This case is important for a number of reasons, and it's likely to be written about extensively in legal and veterinary literature.
Here are some points that make this seemingly minor Texas appellate decision germane to the average practicing veterinarian.
When judges seem to legislate
In its 2011 opinion in Medlen, the Texas Court of Appeals noted that the Texas Supreme Court (a higher legal authority) established in 1891 that damages
for the death of a dog in Texas were limited to the dog's market value. It further mentioned that other Texas Courts of Appeals
have followed this precedent.
So why alter the established law? The Fort Worth appellate court in Medlen said that because "[t]he Texas Supreme Court has not dealt directly with the value of a lost pet in 120 years," and since
not allowing dogs to be added to the list of property qualifying for sentimental-value damages would ignore "the attachment
owners have to their beloved family pets," Texas Supreme Court law would not apply in this case. Essentially, new law needed
to be created and applied to this case.
Supporters of this opinion might opine that the original 120-year-old case prohibiting recovery of noneconomic damages for
the loss of a dog is too old and that people didn't love their dogs then as much as we do now. Fair enough. I say it's up
to the Texas legislature to address that question. What does it mean for the democratic concept of separation of powers when
the judiciary in any state decides to legislate from the bench?
Maybe I'm wrong. Maybe there exists some divine statute of limitations that makes it OK for judges to ignore it and/or change
it. I hope not. I'm kind of partial to some of those venerable relics like, say, freedom of assembly, religion ... that kind
Yet every time I listen to the news, I get the feeling that the separation of powers doctrine must be expiring under that
same divine time limit. Seems like the courthouse is the new senate and assembly.
Why sentimental-value damages are important to veterinarians
Noneconomic damages are important to veterinarians because they're important to another group: the legal profession, the ones
who stand to gain.
Remember that human-medicine malpractice lawsuits are almost always accepted by lawyers with the understanding that the attorney
will receive, as his fee, a percentage of the damage award. This is why when people get hurt, they don't have any trouble
finding counsel. Such litigants have their pick of the many malpractice lawyers who advertise on radio, TV, billboards and
the sides of buses.
Now envision a world where dog lives, cat lives, horse lives and gerbil lives have a higher pecuniary value under the law
after a state legislature says so or a judge interprets old law in some new and creative way. As soon as that happens, pet
cases will take on a whole new meaning for the personal injury bar. Clients whose pets experience post-surgical complications
will no longer hesitate to call the lawyer whose photo appears on the back cover of the phone book. And when that lawyer gets
the call, it will no longer be an annoyance—it will be a cash cow.
So the unreasonable expansion of potential damage awards in animal cases is almost certain to bring with it a higher numbers
of lawsuits filed. Further, it would be reasonable to assume that the average damage award will increase as well.