All too often, one of the first business expenses that veterinary practices cut back in a troubled economy is one of the most
basic — advertising.
This is doubly short-sighted, given the importance of advertising in bad times and the fact that Uncle Sam, in the form of
tax deductions, often will pick up a portion of those costs.
Advertising, as well as marketing, can help build your client base.
Such expenditures fall under several sections of the tax regulations. They include business cards, catalogs, home demonstrations,
package design, prizes and contests, service-launch costs, other promotional activities and much more. Generally, all these
are tax-deductible as "ordinary and necessary" costs of doing business.
But not always.
Nor is it always in the best interest of a practice to take all such deductions in the current tax year.
Basic business expenses
While capital assets, such as equipment or the practice building, are deducted over the long term, and the cost of goods purchased
for resale are deducted from gross sales to arrive at gross income, many other expenditures are immediately deductible.
These include management costs, commissions, labor, supplies, incidental repairs, operating costs of vehicles used in the
business, business-related travel, insurance premiums (for fire, storm, theft or accidents), rental of business property and
Consider the situation of Jones Animal Hospital, a fictitious veterinary practice that publishes a catalog, a compilation
of services and veterinary products it produces and sells to patients and other veterinarians.
Under tax rules, the expenses of creating, printing and distributing the catalog or promotional brochure would be a capital
expense. After all, the publication ordinarily would be expected to benefit the practice for a number of years.
The tax deduction for the expenses of planning, researching, creating, laying out and printing that material would be capital
expenditures-deductible over the period it is expected to useful to the practice.
Should the practice design the brochure or catalog in such a way that it clearly would be useful for a specific period, preferably
only in the current tax year, the write-off would be immediate.
Suppose, however, that the brochure or mailer that was a capital expenditure for the practice, because its expected useful
life exceeded one year, suddenly was outdated, required changes or no longer reflected the practice's services.
The initial expenditure, at least the amount remaining on the books at the time, would become a tax deduction — a loss because
the capital asset was abandoned.
Web site for every occasion
For years, businesses claimed the cost of creating and maintaining a Web site as an advertising expense. However, the IRS
so far has not issued formal guidelines on this.
Informal, internal IRS guidance suggests it may be appropriate to treat these costs like an item of software and depreciate
them over three years.
It is clear, however, that those who pay large amounts to develop sophisticated sites have been allocating their costs to
items such as software development (currently deductible much like research and development costs) and currently deductible
Giving as a form of advertising
Deductions for business gifts, given directly or indirectly to someone, are limited to $25 per recipient per year. Items clearly
of an advertising nature that cost $4 or less and signs, display racks or other promotional materials given for use on business
premises are not gifts.
A veterinary practice that gives clients or prospective clients anything that might be considered a form of entertainment
generally gets the entertainment write-off, ignoring the $25 limit.
But if the practice gives packaged food or beverages that are to be used later, those are considered gifts.
A gift to an client's spouse is not treated separately from a gift to the client personally.
Remember, the $25 limitation applies to gifts made "directly or indirectly" to an individual.
A gift to a client's spouse therefore is considered given indirectly to the client.