Skin lesions have a characteristic histopathologic appearance of marked diffuse parakeratosis; marked ballooning degeneration
of the upper layers of the stratum spinosum (intracellular and extracellular edema of the upper layers of the epidermis);
edematous spaces are filled with neutrophils, necrotic epithelial cells and eosinophilic debris; marked epidermal hyperplasia;
and mild neutrophilic perivascular inflammation in the superficial dermis. These changes have been termed the red (parakeratosis),
white (edema) and blue (hyperplasia) sign suggestive of superficial necrolytic dermatitis.
Most dogs with superficial necrolytic dermatitis have pre-existing liver disease. Clinical signs related to the liver disease
vary from no signs to weight loss, depression, lethargy, PU/PD, jaundice and anorexia. There is often a mild to moderate nonregenerative
anemia to a mildly regenerative anemia. The serum chemistry profile will usually show increases in serum liver enzymes in
95 percent of cases characterized by increases in both serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and serum alanine aminotransferase
Hypoproteinemia and fasting hyperglycemia are common but only a small percentage is overtly diabetic at time of initial diagnosis.
If euglycemic at presentation, a fasting hyperglycemia will generally develop in the future.
If diabetes mellitus is encountered, it is usually late in the course of superficial necrolytic dermatitis. It is uncommon
to see dogs proceed to the development of diabetic ketoacidosis. Increased serum glucagon concentrations have been noted in
about 30-40 percent of affected dogs, and hypoaminoacidemia has been present in 85-90 percent of cases. Serum bile acids are
abnormal in most cases.
Ultrasonography of the liver generally show a characteristic "Swiss cheese" pattern that some feel is pathognomonic for superficial
necrolytic dermatitis. In dogs with idiopathic hepatocellular collapse as the cause for their liver disease, the liver is
usually grossly nodular.
Histopathologically, there is moderate to severe hepatocellular collapse and vacuolar degeneration accompanied by nodular
regeneration. This severe hepatic vacuolar alteration suggests a metabolic or hormonal disease, but the initiating cause has
not been established. In some dogs, the liver is classically cirrhotic.
Clinical signs associated with glucagonomas include depression, anorexia, diarrhea, vomiting, weight loss, and a normocytic,
normochromic anemia. Increased serum liver enzymes may be seen in 40-50 percent of cases; hyperglycemia is very common with
overt diabetes mellitus in about 30 percent of cases. Hyperglucagonemia, hypoalbuminemia and hypoaminoacidemia are very common.
Abnormal serum bile acids are usually not found. A pancreatic mass is usually noted in a small percentage of cases based on
The diagnosis of the skin disease is based on histopathologic examination. Skin lesions should not be surgically prepared
for biopsy, and biopsies should come from the margins and lesional areas. Skin lesions should routinely have cytologic preparations
of skin scrapings/impression smears/tape preparations to document secondary Malassezia, staphylococcal and Candida infections.
Samples for dermatophyte cultures are taken.
Support for a diagnosis of an underlying hepatopathy is based on the results of the CBC, serum chemistry profile, urinalysis,
serum bile acids, radiography, ultrasonography and liver biopsy results. Support for a diagnosis of glucagonoma is based on
CBC, serum chemistry profile, urinalysis, serum bile acids, radiography, ultrasonography, CAT scan, arteriography, measurement
of plasma glucagon (usually five to 10 times above the normal range) and exploratory surgery. In either liver- or glucagonoma-related
cases, consideration should be given to measuring amino acids, zinc and fatty acids.
The treatment for superficial necrolytic dermatitis should include the following for consideration:
- Diet high in good quality protein (e.g. supplement with Hill's a/d or a similar diet).
- Enteral or parenteral feeding procedures may be needed.
- Manage diabetes mellitus if present and the response to the insulin may be erratic.
Symptomatic treatment for secondary infections (systemic antibiotics and germicidal shampoo - if secondary bacterial pyoderma
use benzoyl peroxide or if benzoyl peroxide is irritating, chlorhexidine shampoo; if secondary Malassezia, consider miconazole
or ketoconazole shampoo). Exudative lesions may be treated with a germicidal/astringent soak (one part chlorhexidine to three
parts Domeboro solution).
Amino acid supplementation
Egg yolk supplementation (three to six yolks daily) has been noted to be of some benefit, perhaps because of the amino acid
profile provided. Others have used protein supplements favored by human body builders.
Intravenous amino acid therapy has been noted to benefit dogs with hepatopathy-related superficial necrolytic dermatitis.
Aminosyn 10% Crystalline Amino Acid Solution from Abbott Laboratories is used for this purpose. Each 100 ml contains a total
of 10 grams of amino acids. Use 500 ml per dog administered slowly over about eight to 12 hours in a large central vein, such
as the external jugular vein.
Consideration should be given to measuring serum bile acids prior to this amino acid infusion in that it is possible to contribute
to hepatic encephalopathy with this therapy. If significant improvement is noted, no further amino acid infusions are given.
Prolonged remissions have been noted after only a single infusion. If minimal to no response is noted, the infusions are repeated
every seven to 10 days for four treatments. If an individual dog does not respond by this time, they will generally not respond.
The amino acid infusion is repeated with each exacerbation of the skin lesions. Dogs may go several months between amino acid
infusions, but some dogs will require monthly infusions to maintain remission. As the disease progresses, the need for amino
acid infusions will likely increase.
Essential fatty acid supplementation is used primarily with omega 3 fatty acids at twice the bottle dosage of a high potency
omega 3 fatty acid supplement.
Zinc supplementation of 2 mg/kg daily of zinc methionine is instituted in all individuals.
Niacinamide therapy may also be used at 250-500 mg/dog BID to TID.
For focal inflammatory lesions, such as pododermatitis, that have been controlled, consider the use of topical glucocorticoids,
such as initially generic triamcinolone acetonide BID. Gradually, reduce the frequency of use and, if possible, switch to
hydrocortisone for long-term maintenance therapy.
Systemic steroids (prednisone starting at 1 mg/kg daily) may be beneficial for some dogs. Effects are usually transient and
will eventually become refractory to these therapeutic dosages.
Ketoconazole as been used with some benefit at 5-10 mg/kg BID because of its effects on secondary Malassezia infections or
perhaps for its anti-inflammatory and antipruritic effects.
The treatment for glucagonoma-related superficial necrolytic dermatitis includes supportive care, treating the diabetes mellitus
if present, surgical debulking/removal of the primary pancreatic tumor, octreotide (a long-acting analog of somatostatin that
temporarily inhibits glucagon secretion), intravenous amino acid therapy as for the liver-related superficial necrolytic dermatitis,
and zinc and fatty acid supplementation as for the liver-related superficial necrolytic dermatitis.
The prognosis for dogs with idiopathic hepatocellular collapse is generally poor. Even with the amino acid therapies and other
supportive care, longest survivals have been not more than 2.5 years. The prognosis for glucagonoma-related superficial necrolytic
dermatitis is generally grave. Most of these dogs already have metastatic disease at the time of diagnosis or will develop