Diagnosing IBD: Exclude known causes of chronic intestinal disease - DVM
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Diagnosing IBD: Exclude known causes of chronic intestinal disease
Canine IBD seems to vary in its clinical presentation, natural course, response to treatment and prognosis


Other immunosuppressive agents, such as azathioprine, chlorambucil or cyclophosphamide, at the usual dosages, are used alone or in combination with corticosteroids. When used in combination, they may decrease the required dosage of corticosteroids and the associated side effects or allow the dogs to be weaned off corticosteroids as soon as possible. Moreover, these drugs are also used for cases of steroid-refractory canine IBD. They may have a delayed onset of action (weeks to months until maximal effect).

If the IBD is limited to the large bowel, compound molecules containing mesa-lamine (5-ASA) such as sulfa-salazine (initially 10-25 mg/kg orally TID for six weeks, then taper down) or olsalazine (initially 5-10 mg/kg orally TID, then reduce gradually) have proven beneficial effects on the colonic mucosa. Keratoconjunctivitis sicca is a well-known complication in dogs treated with either of these two drugs.

Cyclosporin A (cyA) (5 mg/kg orally once daily for a total of 10 weeks) may be a valid alternative for canine IBD. The cellular infiltrate in canine chronic idiopathic enteropathies mainly consists of lymphocytes and plasma cells in the lamina propria. The anti-inflammatory effect of cyA in IBD is thought to be due to its action on T-cells that infiltrate the mucosa. CyA binds intracellularly to calmodulin, which reduces the release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum, thereby inhibiting further down-stream signaling, and finally inhibiting the expression of IL-2. Because IL-2 is necessary for the survival of T-cells for longer than 24-48 hours, it is hypo-thesized that cyA decreases the number of infiltrating T-cells in the mucosa of the dogs, thereby reducing the amount of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and finally, the clinical signs of the disease. Reported side effects are vomiting, partial anorexia, gingival ulceration and alopecia followed by hypertrichosis.

Probiotics are living non-pathogenic micro-organisms that may exert beneficial effects on the immune system. In an ex-vivo culture system of duodenal biopsies from dogs with IBD, addition of three strains of Lactobacilli enhanced the expression of the regulatory cytokine IL-10. Based on these results, the use of such probiotics in vivo in dogs with IBD may be of benefit to decrease intestinal inflammation.

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Source: DVM360 MAGAZINE,
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