Testicular torsion is another problem that can be seen in breeding stallions. Torsion is usually of 180 or 360 degrees and
can be either acute or chronic. Acute torsion is the form most common to practitioners and associated with abdominal pain
and colic. Careful palpation of the testicles usually reveals a hot, tender 180-degree rotation or, in more advanced stages,
a cold testicle. Surgical removal of the affected testicle is usually necessary, but these stallions may continue to breed
successfully to a reduced book of mares. Chronic torsion can be more difficult to diagnose and is sometimes overlooked. These
stallions may twist intermittently without clinical signs or with only mild discomfort and reluctance to ejaculate. There
may be some hind limb swelling or scrotal swelling, but these torsions can be difficult to palpate, and practitioners should
remember to consider this problem based on a continuing history of intermittent breeding difficulty.
The breeding stallion is half of the reproductive pair, and attention to the potential problems and diseases seen in these
animals is easily as important as all the time spent palpating, culturing and flushing mares. Though stallion issues do not
come up with the same frequency as do those in mares, serious conditions can occur, and early recognition and treatment might
help save a stallion's fertility and may help save your client's breeding season.