"There will be a comparison of vaccine use, knowledge regarding some infectious diseases such as equine infectious anemia
(EIA) and comparison of percent of operations and percent of equids tested for EIA," she says. "Beyond that, there will be
data from other sources than the NAHMS Equine studies included that are pertinent to illustrate changes over time in the equine
industry for various equine health issues."
One of the values of the study, Traub-Dargatz says, is that it includes the options for infection control that are being used
by a large percentage of the equine operations, as well as where there are opportunities for further advancements.
Table 3: For operations that administered any vaccine during the previous 12 months; percent of operators who administered
the majority of vaccines.
Other findings of the Equine 2005 study follow.
Overall, 75.9 percent of operations had given at least some type of vaccine to resident equids during the previous 12 months.
A higher percentage of operations in the West region (83.8 percent) had given at least some vaccines to resident equids, compared
to operations in the South and Northeast regions (72.3 percent and 72 percent, respectively). The percentage of operations
that used a veterinarian to administer the majority of vaccines to resident equids ranged from 69.5 percent in the Northeast
region to 35.1 percent in the West region, where most vaccines were administered by operators or equine owners.
Nearly 5 percent of foals born alive died in the first 30 days. The percentage of foals that died in the first two days and
the percentage that died in the subsequent 28 days (age 3 to 30 days) were similar (2.6 percent and 2.3 percent, respectively).
For foals born alive that died in the first 30 days, 18.6 percent died due to injury, wounds or trauma not related to birth,
17.9 percent died from unknown causes, and 14.9 percent died because they failed to get colostrum or milk from the mare. Dystocia,
trauma or complications at birth, birth defects and digestive problems were also frequently reported causes of death. Other
causes of death included predator attacks and adverse environmental conditions.
Table 4: Percentage of operations that administered vaccines for the following diseases to one or more equids during the previous
The highest mortality rates among resident equids over 30 days of age occurred in equids 30 years or older, followed by equids
20 to less than 30 years of age. The leading causes of death were old age (28.9 percent of deaths), injury/wounds/trauma (16.3
percent of deaths) and colic (14.6 percent of deaths) for equids more than 30 days of age.
Lameness, leg or hoof problems accounted for 7.7 percent of deaths. The remaining 32.5 percent included 6.6 percent attributed
to unknown causes and individual specified causes — each of which accounted for less than 7 percent of total deaths — such
as cancer, digestive problems other than colic and neurologic problems.
About half of large operations isolated or quarantined returning resident equids —either routinely or due to disease or exposure
to disease — compared to about one-third of small operations.
For more information visit: http://aphis.usda.gov/equine/#equine2005 or call (970) 494-7000.