Fluid therapy: Finding the best options for perfusion, oxygen supply - DVM
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Fluid therapy: Finding the best options for perfusion, oxygen supply


Table 4: Volume expansion
Since colloids remain within the vascular compartment for comparatively long periods, their combination with hypertonic solutions should produce a sustained hemodynamic effect (Table 4).

The most significant advance in fluid therapy has been the development and clinical approval of an oxygen-carrying blood substitute. Oxyglobin is a solution of approximately 13 g/dl of purified, polymerized bovine hemoglobin diluted in a modified lactated Ringer's solution and has an osmolality of approximately 300 mOsm/kg and a colloid osmotic pressure of approximately 40 mm Hg. The average molecular weight of this solution is 200 kD and its oxygen affinity is regulated by physiologic chloride concentrations, not 2,3-DPG.

This solution increases the oxygen-carrying capability of blood while reducing blood viscosity. What all this means is that Oxyglobin can be administered at any time to dogs or cats in need of a blood transfusion or during acute and critical situations in which an acute increase in blood volume and oxygen-carrying capacity are needed. It is an excellent fluid to use in animals suffering from acute blood loss secondary to trauma or surgical mishap. It should be administered to patients that have become hemodiluted (PCV less than 15 percent to 18 percent) from crystalloids. The product can be administered to patients suffering from chronic anemia with PCV values less than 10 percent. Importantly, Oxyglobin has a two-year shelf life and requires no cross matching because it contains no red-cell membranes.

Table 5: Algorithm of fluid therapy for shock patients
Fluid-therapy guidelines for patients in shock should include frequent physical examination, hemodynamic monitoring and blood-chemical monitoring (Table 5).

Finally, remember that fluid-therapy protocols are guides only and must be modified to meet the changing needs (volume, electrolyte, acid-base, oxygen) of the patient for fluid therapy to be successful without producing side effects.

Dr. Hoskins is owner of Docu-Tech Services. He is a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine with specialities in small animal pediatrics. He can be reached at (225) 955-3252, fax: (214) 242-2200 or e-mail:


Source: DVM360 MAGAZINE,
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