Shoes and foot problems
Because carriage horses work on streets and hard pavement, shoes and foot concerns are important. Many different types of
foot support, boots and rubber shoes, pour-in sole materials and other devices are used in the carriage industry to reduce
the constant pressure on the hooves of these animals.
Some cities, such as Charleston, have specific ordinances requiring a particular shoe type. Rubber shoe inserts required there
are believed to reduce the transferred heat and bone vibrations from the baking pavement. Carriage companies are encouraged
to retain the services of a good farrier, and veterinarians servicing these animals need to be ever vigilant for long toes,
under-supported heels and imbalanced feet.
Tack concerns are another important area in the carriage-horse debate. While improvements in materials and designs have greatly
reduced many tack-related conditions seen at the turn of the century, problems still occur.
In the Southeast, heat and humidity, along with tack-related pressure points and rubs, contribute to cases of pressure sores
and skin ulcers.
"These are seen at the poll or along the collar area typically," Malark says, "and increasingly in Belgians for some reason."
On any given summer day, 50 to 60 horses will be working the streets of Charleston. Of these, Malark estimates five or six
will have some type of skin irritation. His uncomplicated method of treatment is clipping and cleaning the affected area and
applying a good drying powder.
It is interesting that skin irritation and rashes are common among southeastern college football players exercising in protective
pads during the late summer. It may be that environmental conditions and the use of any type of pad or collar, no matter how
correctly fitted, will produce skin irritation in sensitive individuals.
"Exertional myositis and other muscle problems are always a concern with carriage horses, but attention to hydration, electrolyte
intake and diet can minimize these conditions," Malark says.
Most carriage horses are fed a 10 percent protein, low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet to provide enough energy while reducing
typical draft-horse myo-pathies. While most are given electrolyte supplementation in their diets, there is no specific product
or mix that has been shown to be optimum for them. Electrolytes are seldom if ever given orally.
Endurance horses, in contrast, receive specific electrolyte combinations of sodium, potassium, chloride, magnesium and calcium
orally via paste syringe almost hourly during a 50- or 100-mile ride. The combinations for each competitor are individualized
through blood testing often done at rides. It is believed that this aggressive use of electrolyte replacement partly explains
why these athletes can compete at remarkable speeds and distances, often in hot, muggy conditions, with a minimum of problems.
Most extreme-weather exercise physiology data come from endurance or three-day eventing horses. These thinner, less-muscled
breeds do not face exactly the same challenges as draft-breed carriage horses, but many of the same principles apply.
Misting fans and the application and quick removal of very cold water has been shown to cool a heated horse rapidly. In Charleston
(considered a model for carriage operations), horses are required to have their temperatures taken each morning and after
each trip. They are supposed to make no more than four to six trips daily and to work only five to six consecutive days and
then rest. After each trip the horse usually is cooled down, sprayed off and given a chance to eat. Many drivers and veterinarians
feel that these parameters are fine and that the vast number of carriage horses tolerate them well.
The truth is that, despite what most veterinarians feel and believe, we really do not know.
Lack of information
There is a distinct lack of specific information on how carriage horses handle heat, humidity and other issues.
How much weight (fluid and feces) is lost by a working carriage horse in a typical hot summer day? What is the working heart-rate
range for a carriage horse pulling four to six people in a wagon along an inclined street? What changes if there are 10 to
12 people in the carriage? How long does it take for body parameters to return to normal (clinically) after a six- to eight-hour
day pulling carriages or buggies?
Most endurance competitors train and compete with heart-rate monitors, measure their horse's weight before, during and after
competitions and amass a wealth of information that allows them to push the limits of performance and still protect their
In order to answer the concerns of animal advocates, to keep carriage companies in business and to ensure that the health
of working carriage horses is protected, research is needed.
"Studies need to be focused on these horses," says Malark, adding, "If you want answers, then you have to fund the research."
Effects of heat, humidity
A particular area that needs research is the degree of heat and humidity that can safely be tolerated by working carriage
horses. No other issue generates as much debate.
In 2006 Merriam appeared before a Charleston committee charged with shaping an ordinance for carriage horses. While certain
committee members wanted very specific heat/humidity guidelines, Merriam explained that temperature, heat and humidity thresholds
could not always be defined appropriately, so some allowance for common sense should be made.
Conditions vary in different cities, adding to the difficulty. Merriam told the committee that carriage horses in Kansas have
worked successfully in temperatures of 100 degrees, but with low humidity. Horses in the Southeast rarely experience that
much sustained heat but the humidity can be exceptionally high. Horses in Boston generally pull up steeper hills than horses
in Atlanta and therefore work harder in similar heat and humidity.
A Temperature Humidity Index (THI) is calculated by adding the temperature to the relative humidity, and some level of this
index is commonly used as the cut-off point for carriage-horse activity.
Setting this level means that variations on the route that horses are taking (shady, sunny, congested or breezy), differences
in wind movement, terrain and road surface all must be considered.
"There is debate even as to where the official thermometer should be placed and at what height it should be kept," Malark
"I don't know that an ordinance is ever going to be good enough to take care of any animals," says Dr. Allison Barca, a veterinarian
caring for carriage horses in the French Quarter of New Orleans. "It is up to the owner, trainer and driver to make these
decisions. These people are trained to watch the animals, see if they are suffering and bring them in," she says.
Almost all veterinarians working with carriage horses agree that horses that have become accustomed to the heat tolerate it
better than one might imagine. "They feel exactly what we feel, but just like some people ... are capable of working in this
heat and humidity, some animals are, also," Barca says.
Many animal advocates question whether carriage-horse owners can be trusted to regulate themselves.
While there are certainly some less-than-ethical individuals, these are present in every sport and business endeavor. The
majority of owners and drivers genuinely care about their horses.
"These animals are our bread and butter, and we do the very best we can to take care of them," says Tamara Neal, a carriage
driver in New Orleans.
Marcella is an equine practitioner in Canton, Ga.