Selegiline (Anipryl — Pfizer) is a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor licensed to treat CD. It inhibits the degradation and recycling
of the monoamine neurochemicals (i.e., norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine), with its largest effect on dopamine. By providing
increased neurochemical stimulation to neurons, their synapses are maintained, and the effects of BDNF are able to occur.
This medication works best as a preventive and treatment if given when the first signs of CD begin. The most dramatic effect
is noticed by clients if the dogs are moderately affected, but that's because the decline was so apparent. Treatment of CD
with medication is another example of a situation in which treating early and often is preferred.
For some dogs that exhibit nonspecific signs of anxiety as their first behavioral changes with age, treatment with tricyclic
antidepressants (TCAs) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may help. Clients typically notice diminished anxiety
levels. Because these medications increase signal transduction efficiency, they help keep neurons plump and talking to each
other. As a result, they may have protective and treatment roles for CD.
Cognitive and physical stimulation
New research is expanding our knowledge about the cognitive skills of dogs. The "smartest" dogs are likely the dogs that are
Because dogs slow as they age, we should not assume that maturity and arthritis mean that dogs require less cognitive and
physical stimulation. In fact, all the data — for dogs and for ourselves — suggest that we need more cognitive and physical
stimulation with age. Aerobic exercise has been shown to slow cognitive change in human patients in the early stages of Alzheimer's
disease, and mental exercise appears to have a physical benefit for such patients. If you think about what we know about brain
energy use, this actually makes sense. The same association appears to be true for dogs. Using both cognitive and molecular
measures, enhanced diets plus environmental enrichment (cognitive stimulation) have a greater effect on improving measures
of problem solving in dogs than do either alone.
Physical exercise should be suited to the breed, behavioral pattern and health of the dog. Even arthritic dogs can benefit
from walking and daily massage. Swimming will benefit all dogs. For those that dislike swimming or that do not have access
to a place to swim, clients and veterinarians can consider underwater treadmills. These are fantastic for rehabilitation but
are underappreciated as a regular (at least weekly) means of safe exercise and water massage for dogs that are severely arthritic.
Failing all of this, severely arthritic dogs can benefit from undergoing range of frequent motion exercises in a bath tub
filled with warm water — something devoted clients can do daily.
Dogs that liked to catch balls and Frisbees when young may not wish to jump, but they would be happy to chase or retrieve
these same toys if they are rolled. Rolling food toys and puzzles also enhances and maintains eye-paw coordination, and since
the toys and puzzles make noise, even dogs that are losing visual and auditory acuity can benefit.
Interestingly, cognitive stimulation for dogs may also include olfactory stimulation. We know from the human literature that
all conditions involving cognitive impairment also involve decrements in olfactory ability. We know that biopsies of aged
dogs' olfactory epithelia show depositions of amyloid among olfactory neurons. These patterns suggest that olfactory stimulation
may be one form of cognitive stimulation to which older dogs can be exposed. Olfactory stimulation may be as simple as dragging
a freshly cooked bone through grass and encouraging the dog to follow the path. The marrow from the bone can be the reward.
This association between decrements in cognition and olfactory function may also suggest that we need to pay attention to
the volatile olfactory component of our dogs' dinners. Warming food and providing warm broth allows odorant molecules to volatilize,
stimulating a dog's brain and encouraging eating.
In addition to some scent work, other forms of cognitive stimulation may include basic obedience or clicker work, or working
to teach new or maintain old tricks. Five minutes of such work three to four times a day can be priceless. Some of this can
be incorporated into daily life. For example, if clients are getting up from the table, they can ask the dog to come with
them, to sit or wait, and/or offer a paw. There is nothing better than ongoing stimulation and interaction.
Photo 1: Flash (right) was 12 years old when Toby (left, at 9 weeks) was adopted into the household. Raising this puppy became
part of Flash's legacy, but the positive effects on his cognition, social and motor skills are clear in this photo.
Play with puppies (Photo 1) provides cognitive and physical stimulation for older dogs, enhances their aerobic scope and provides
a foundation for good manners. Just be sure that the older dog likes other dogs and that the puppy cannot hurt the older dog.
Photo 2: Tess, 14 years old and in the buggy, was unable to go on the long walks the other dogs would take multiple times
a week. Rather than leave her alone for hours at a time, her owners placed her in the buggy allowing her to experience novel
and complex stimuli, use different muscles, have the company of the other dogs (here accompanied by Flash) and smell the world
as she passed through it.
Social interaction and exposure to new stimuli is essential for keeping cognitive skills sharp. We often think that withdrawal
from such social situations is normal for older dogs, when, instead, older dogs are just painful, unaware or unable to get
where they can participate. Because they are slow and quiet, they are left behind. This is a huge mistake, and every effort
should be made to include these older dogs. Pet strollers provide an underused option for older arthritic pets. As shown in
Photos 2 and 3, strollers allow an old Australian shepherd to accompany her owners and the other dogs on the regular three-mile
walks. While she is not getting aerobic exercise, she is using muscles involved in balance and attentiveness, while getting
much needed social and olfactory stimulation. Also, she knows she is included and loved.
Photo 3: The positive effect on Tess of such stimulation is clear in her engaged and relaxed facial expression. Dogs of her
age and debility are too often left alone, where they resort to sleep in the absence of cognitive stimulation.
Dr. Overall, faculty member at the University of Pennsylvania, has given hundreds of national and international presentations on behavioral
medicine. She is a diplomate of the American College of Veterinary Behavior (ACVB) and is board certified by the Animal Behavior
Society (ABS) as an Applied Animal Behaviorist.