Editor's Note: Ronald McLaughlin, DVM, DVSc, Dipl. ACVS, is a professor and chief of Small Animal Surgery at the College of Veterinary Medicine,
Mississippi State University. He also is chief of staff at Mississippi State University's Animal Health Center and head of
the Department of Clinical Sciences.
Do you see patients in a clinical setting, or do you devote your time to research and teaching only?
McLaughlin: I see clinical patients in our teaching hospital, the Animal Health Center at Mississippi State University. Most are referred
by area veterinarians for surgery to treat orthopedic or other conditions.
Silent suffering: Make sure dog owners are aware of the signs of osteoarthritis so it can be caught early and more easily
treated. (Thomas Strand/Getty Images)
You've done a lot of research on osteoarthritis treatments. Tell us about your conclusions.
McLaughlin: Most of my research in this area has been on the management of osteoarthritis, not necessarily in geriatric patients, but
in all ages. We've done clinical evaluations of new and existing nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), nutraceuticals
and other agents. We look to see if certain agents or newer drugs are more effective than what currently is being offered,
if patients are more comfortable and whether these drugs should be part of the overall treatment for patients.
There's increasing evidence—in fact, a substantial body of knowledge now—that NSAIDs and nutraceuticals do help control inflammation
and reduce the signs of osteoarthritis and, as such, are valuable treatments. However, there are still questions to be answered
about which treatments are best and what new treatments might help improve patients' quality of life.
For veterinarians in clinical practice, what would you recommend as the most effective ways for them to relieve the signs
of this condition in older canines?
McLaughlin: The ideal approach is a multimodal one. One treatment alone is unlikely to be fully effective. Rather, a combination of treatments
helps make patients more comfortable and relieves signs. A good multimodal approach would entail NSAIDs for anti-inflammatory
properties; analgesics for pain; nutraceuticals for comfort and to preserve cartilage; proper nutrition, for example, an omega-3-based
diet; weight control or weight loss and physical therapy.
Are certain breeds most at risk?
McLaughlin: We see osteoarthritis in all breeds of both dogs and cats. That said, we do tend to see older, large-breed, athletic and
working dogs with this condition. For the latter two, it may be that their signs are more obvious because the osteoarthritis
affects their work.
What medications would you recommend? Any common contraindications or side effects veterinarians should watch for?
McLaughlin: Long-term use of NSAIDS can cause renal and gastrointestinal problems, especially in geriatric dogs. Veterinarians should
watch for clinical signs of those complications and regularly get blood work done on such dogs. Also, veterinarians should
never give an animal two NSAIDs at the same time.
A multimodal approach as I described earlier can enable veterinarians to lower the dosage or reduce the frequency of NSAID
treatments, which is especially important in dogs that must be on NSAIDs for a long time.
Other than medications, what treatments, if any, have demonstrated relief in dogs? For example, physical and exercise therapy,
massage, acupuncture or any other alternative medicine treatments?
McLaughlin: A lot of work has been done in alternative therapies to see if they reduce osteoarthritis signs. For example, physical therapy
is becoming more common in veterinary medicine. With the right protocols and physical therapy modalities, patients have improved.
There's also been recent research that looked at laser therapy, electrostimulation and therapeutic ultrasonography that have
shown some benefits, but more work is needed in these areas. The body of knowledge around nutraceuticals certainly has increased
and does show some positive effects, though some seem more effective than others, based on the research.