6 practical loco-regional blocks you should be using - DVM
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6 practical loco-regional blocks you should be using
A second look at local blocks and strategies for effective administration


DVM360 MAGAZINE


REFERENCES

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2. Cassuto J, Sinclair R, Bonderovic M. Anti-inflammatory properties of local anesthetics and their present and potential clinical implications. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand 2006;50(3):265-282.

3. Grammaitoni AR, Galer BS, Onawola R, et al. Lidocaine patch 5% and its positive impact on pain qualities in osteoarthritis: results of a pilot 2-week, open-label study using the Neuropathic Pain Scale. Curr Med Res Opin 2004;20 Suppl 2:S13-S19.

4. Weiland L, Croubels S, Baert K, et al. Pharmacokinetics of a lidocaine patch 5% in dogs. J Vet Med A Physiol Pathol Clin Med 2006;53(1):34-39.

5. Ko JC, Maxwell LK, Abbo LA, et al. Pharmacokinetics of lidocaine following the application of 5% lidocaine patches to cats. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2008;31(4):359-367.

6. Duffield TF, Heinrich A, Milman ST, et al. Reduction in pain response by combined use of local lidocaine anesthesia and systemic ketoprofen in dairy calves dehorned by heat cauterization. Can Vet J 2010;51(3):283-288.

7. Carpenter RE, Wilson DV, Evans AT. Evaluation of intraperitoneal and incisional lidocaine or bupivacaine for analgesia following ovariohysterectomy in the dog. Vet Anaesth Analg 2004;31(1):46-52.

8. Sawas, I, Papazoglou LG, Kazakos G, et al. Incisional block with bupivacaine for analgesia after celiotomy in dogs. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 2008;44(2):60-66.

9. Fitzpatrick CL, Weir HL, Monnet E. Effects of infiltration of the incision site with bupivacaine on postoperative pain and incisional healing in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237(4):395-401.

10. Candido KD, Winnie AP, Ghaleb AH, et al. Buprenorphine added to the local anesthetic for axillary brachial plexus block prolongs postoperative analgesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med 2002;27(2):162-167.

11. Bazin JE, Massoni C, Bruelle P, et al. The addition of opioids to local anesthetics in brachial plexus block: the comparative effects of morphine, buprenorphine and sufentanil. Anaesthesia 1997;52(9):858-862.

12. Webb AA, Cantwell SL, Duke T, et al. Intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier block) in a dog. Can Vet J 1999;:40(6):419-421.

13. Kushner LI, Fan B, Shofer FS. Intravenous regional anesthesia in isoflurane anesthetized cats: lidocaine plasma concentrations and cardiovascular effects. Vet Anaesth Analg 2002;29(3):140-149.

14. Ranheim B, Haga HA, Ingebrigtsen K. Distribution of radioactive lidocaine injected into the testes in piglets. J Vet Pharmacol Ther 2005;28(5):481-483.

15. Haga HA, Ranheim B. Castration of piglets: the analgesic effects of intratesticular and intrafunicular lidocaine injection. Vet Anaesth Analg 2005;32(1):1-9.

16. Haga HA, Lykkjen S, Revold T, et al. Effect of intratesticular injection of lidocaine on cardiovascular responses to castration in isoflurane-anesthetized stallions. Am J Vet Res 2006;67(3):403-408.

17. Accola PJ, Bentley E, Smith LJ, et al. Development of a retrobulbar injection technique for ocular surgery and analgesia in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229(2):220-225.

18. Myrna KE, Bentley E, Smith LJ. Effectiveness of injection of local anesthetic into the retrobulbar space for postoperative analgesia following eye enucleation in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010; 237(2):174-177.


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