Tips for interventional radiology and interventional endoscopy
Patients with urinary incontinence can have a normal abdominal ultrasonographic examination or intravenous pyelogram. The
most sensitive tests for diagnosing ectopic ureters are cystoscopy and contrast-enhanced computed tomography. Because of the
possibility of CLA-EU, our diagnostic method of choice is cystoscopy, which can allow for simultaneous diagnosis and treatment,
avoiding the need for multiple anesthesia events and reducing the overall cost to the client.
Note, dogs with ectopic ureters nearly always have concurrent anatomical anomalies, such as hydroureter, hydronephrosis, intrapelvic
bladders, short urethral, hypoplastic bladders, vaginal septums, dual vagina, persistent paramesonephric remnant and USMI.
About 90 percent of dogs have concurrent USMI, which explains why traditional surgery and CLA-EU are not 100 percent effective
in curing the urinary incontinence. This should be discussed with the owners before treatment, as other concurrent therapy,
such as medications, urethral sphincter bulking agents, surgery or placement of an artificial urethral sphincter (hydraulic
occluder), may need to be considered in the future.
- McLoughlin MA, Chew DJ. Diagnosis and surgical management of ectopic ureters. Clin Tech Small Animal Pract 2000;15(1):17-24.
- McCarthy TC. Transurethral cystoscopy and diode laser incision to correct an ectopic ureter. Vet Med 2006;101(9):558-559.
- Berent AC, Mayhew PD, Porat-Mosenco Y. Use of cystoscopic-guided laser ablation for treatment of intramural ureteral ectopia
in male dogs: four cases (2006-2007). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2008;232(1):1026-1034.
- Mayhew PD, Lee KC, Gregory SP, et al. Comparison of two surgical techniques for management of intramural ureteral ectopia
in dogs: 36 cases (1994–2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229(3):389-393.
- Smith AL, Radlinsky MG, Rawlings CA. Cystoscopic diagnosis and treatment of ectopic ureters in female dogs: 16 cases (2005-2008).
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2010;237(2):191-195.
For more case studies, and to see how interventional radiology and interventional endoscopy can benefit patients, visit
Dr. Berent is the director of Interventional Endoscopy Services in the Department of Diagnostic Imaging at The Animal Medical Center
in New York City. Dr. Weisse is the director of Interventional Radiology Services in the Department of Diagnostic Imaging at The Animal Medical Center
in New York City.
For a complete list of articles by Drs. Berent and Weisse, visit