History. Is the patient limping or having difficulty getting up or lying down? How many calories are consumed daily to achieve this
Examination. Include muscle tone assessment, a pass over the joints (including patellas and umbilical region), flexing the joints and
making a judgment about relative obesity, weight loss or gain.
2. External Systems
History. Has the patient been scratching? If so, where on the body? Has the owner noticed any lumps or bumps?
Examination. Check texture of hair, relative thickness of dermis and epidermis and a look at interdigital tissues and nails.
History. Is patient depressed or listless? Any changes in appetite or attitude? Behavior issues? Locomotion changes? Any seizures?
Examination. Overview of cranial nerves, long motor tracts and cerebellar function. Are parasympathetic and sympathetic balance within
normal limits? Check temperature and assess level of pain.
History. Subjective questions, including client's perception of the pet's hearing and sight.
Examination. Ophthalmic structures and adnexa and a look at the cornea, lens and retina with ophthalmoscope. Feel pinna and view vertical
and horizontal canals and tympanic structures with otoscope.
History. Tires easily? Has the client noticed any fainting, weakness or exercise intolerance?
Examination. Listen to heart valves with both sides of stethoscope. Feel the femoral pulse and assess warm or cold sensation of distal
extremities. Check tissue perfusion.
History. Any noticeable membrane color changes?
Examination. Look at mucous membranes, assess capillary refill and feel lymph nodes.
History. Any coughing, sneezing or distress noted?
Examination. View upper respiratory airways, assess inspiratory and expiratory patterns and note wheezing, crackle or pharynx rattle.
History. Any polydipsia, polyuria, incontinence or micturition problems? Record date of last estrus, any breeding patterns and data
on ovariohysterectomy or orchiectomy.
Examination. External genitalia notations. Palpation of bladder, external organs including male prepuce, testes and female vulva and mammary
History. Regurgitation? Diarrhea? Stool size, color and shape? Bad breath?
Examination. Lips, teeth, oral cavity, salivary gland and thyroid palpation, abdominal palpation, anus examination along with anal sac
questions (scooting?). Note dental score on whatever scale you use.