Apexogenesis is the desired outcome when vital pulp tissue is exposed in a young dog or cat less than 9 months old. Once
the apex is closed, conventional root canal therapy can be performed (Photo 12).
Apexification is the desired result of the procedure undertaken on an immature permanent tooth where pulpal inflammation and
necrosis have occurred to the point where preservation of the pulp is no longer possible. Calcium hydroxide is used to stimulate
the periapical tissues to bring a bony closure to the apex. Once this has been accomplished, conventional endodontics can
be performed (Photos 13, 14).