The patient was discharged from the hospital the same day and experienced immediate resolution of the urethral obstruction.
Discharge medications included a two-week tapering dose of enrofloxacin pending urine culture results.
Follow-up phone calls each week confirmed that the patient continued to do well. Initially, the dog occasionally dripped urine
between normal strong urinations, but this resolved after the first week. A recheck examination was scheduled two weeks later
with an oncologist to discuss further treatment options.
Urothelial/transitional cell carcinomas are the most common lower urinary tract tumors encountered in dogs, often involving
the trigone, urethra or prostate. More than 80 percent of these patients experience significant dysuria, and about 10 percent
develop complete urinary tract obstruction.1,2 While chemotherapy has been demonstrated to result in improved survival times, substantial tumor responses are uncommon,
complete cures are rare and tumor progression is typical.
Once signs of urinary obstruction occur, few good options exist. Cystostomy tube placement, transurethral resection and surgical
diversion have been described, but these are either invasive or associated with significant morbidity, including the need
for manual urine drainage, tube dislodgement, urinary tract infection, incontinence or surgical complications.3-6
More recently, transurethral placement of self-expanding metallic stents under fluoroscopic guidance has been described. These
stents result in rapid and effective restoration of urethral patency and urine flow.7 The procedure is performed on an out-patient basis and helps the patient avoid the need for manual drainage and other surgery-associated
A recent study reported good results after urethral stent placement in 41 dogs: a major incontinence rate of 25 percent (three-quarters
of patients had minor or no incontinence) and median survival time of about 250 days if the patients received chemotherapy
after stent placement.7 The cause of death in these patients is rarely due to repeat urinary obstruction; rather, the most common cause of death
is secondary to tumor metastases and signs of systemic illness. These stenting techniques also have been effective in cats
as well as for benign urethral strictures.
A video of the procedure can be viewed at http://www.amcny.org/node/342#Urethral_Stenting/. The stenting procedure is fairly short, and patients are typically discharged from the hospital the same day. Medical management
with antibiotics (short-term), nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and chemotherapy continue after stenting.
For more case studies and to see how interventional radiology and interventional endoscopy can benefit patients, visit http://www.amcny.org/interventional-radiology-endoscopy/IR-IE-procedures/.
Dr. Berent is the director of Interventional Endoscopy Services in the Department of Diagnostic Imaging at The Animal Medical
Center in New York City. Dr. Weisse is the director of Interventional Radiology Services in the Department of Diagnostic Imaging
at The Animal Medical Center in New York City.
1. Norris AM, Laing EJ, Valli VEO, et al. Canine bladder and urethral tumors: a retrospective study of 115 cases (1980–1985).
J Vet Intern Med 1992;6(3):145-153.
2. Knapp DW, Glickman NW, DeNicola DB, et al. Naturally-occurring canine transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder.
A relevant model of human invasive bladder cancer. Urol Oncol 2000;5(2):47-59.
3. Stiffler KS, McCrackin Stevenson MA, Cornell KK, et al. Clinical use of low-profile cystostomy tubes in four dogs and a cat.
J Am Vet Med Assoc 2003;223(3):325-329.
4. Liptak JM, Brutscher SP, Monnet E, et al. Transurethral resection in the management of urethral and prostatic neoplasia in
6 dogs. Vet Surg 2004;33(5):505-516.
5. Stone EA, Withrow SJ, Page RL, et al. Ureterocolonic anastomosis in ten dogs with transitional cell carcinoma. Vet Surg 1988;17(3):147-153.
6. Weisse C, Berent A, Clifford C, et al. Evaluation of palliative stenting for management of malignant urethral obstructions
in dogs. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2006;229(2):226-234.
7. Blackburn A, Berent A, Weisse C, et al. Urethral stenting in canine patients with urothelial carcinoma: a review of 41 cases
(2004-2008), in Proceedings. Am Coll Vet Intern Med, 2010.