Selective radiationRadiation therapy is reasonable treatment in the palliative or adjuvant setting for select TCC cases. While intraoperative
radiation therapy has provided promising results, it is a technically challenging alternative that requires facilities and
personnel adept at coordinating the surgical and radiation treatments during one anesthetic event. Initial results with external
beam radiation therapy and chemotherapy for canine TCC suggest that relief of signs may be superior to that achieved with
chemotherapy alone, although overall survival times have been similar to chemotherapy alone.