Minimally invasive thoracic surgery
What you will need The basic thoracoscopy equipment includes a surgical telescope (Figure 1), trocar-cannulas, a basic set of thoracoscopic surgical instruments, a light source, a video camera, and a video monitor (Table 1). Thoracoscopy doesn't require CO2 insufflation because the rib cage keeps the thoracic cavity expanded.
Telescopes Telescopes used for thoracoscopy are most commonly 5 mm in diameter and 30 cm long. This scope size works in a wide range of animals. Telescopes are available with different angles, and the forward-view 0-degree and the forward oblique 30-degree telescopes are most commonly used. The 0-degree telescope allows a natural field of view and a normal perspective to organ orientation. The 30- degree telescopes allow better visualization of areas in the thoracic cavity that are difficult to access. However, orientation and manipulation are more difficult with the angled scopes.Cannulas Cannulas for thoracoscopy are either open or closed. Closed cannulas feature a valve that allows the veterinarian to create a controlled pneumothorax. They can potentially induce a tension pneumothorax during the procedure. Open cannulas create an open chest, as in a thoracotomy. Open cannulas are preferred for long surgical procedures because they reduce the risk for tension pneumothorax. Cannulas come in different diameters. The recommended diameter is 12 mm because most stapling equipment available for thoracoscopy is 10 mm in diameter.
As for equipment, two types are recommended for advanced surgical procedures using minimally invasive surgery: radiofrequency and ultrasound-based equipment. They provide fast, safe sealing of blood vessels without using suture materials. Radiofrequency equipment can safely seal an artery with a diameter of less than 7 mm. Ultrasound-based equipment allows the practitioner to cut through the tissue and seal the blood vessels. Vessels sealed using ultrasound technology should have a diameter of less than 3 mm.