The Cartesian model of pain imagines the somatosensory system as a simple, predictable, proportional line of communication directly linking, without altering, pain signals as they are transmitted from the periphery to the brain for conscious perception.
It is apparent that the primary, if not only, reason to assess pain is to take action to relieve pain. However, one of the most challenging responsibilities of veterinary professionals is pain assessment.
Multimodal analgesia, so called “balanced” analgesia, was introduced by Dahl et al in 1990 in order to minimize the adverse effects of opioids. These include respiratory depression, sedation, dysphoria,