Trends change in composition of feline uroliths
Apr 01, 2005
However, beginning in the mid-1980s, a dramatic increase in the frequency of calcium oxalate uroliths occurred in association with a decrease in the frequency of struvite uroliths (Table 1). From 1994 to 2002, approximately 55 percent of the feline uroliths submitted to the Minnesota Urolith Center were composed of calcium oxalate, while only 33 percent were composed of struvite. During this period, the decline in appearance of naturally occurring struvite uroliths associated with a reciprocal increase in calcium oxalate uroliths may have been associated with:
Epidemiology of feline uroliths: 2003-2004
In 2003, the frequency of calcium oxalate uroliths declined to 47 percent, while the frequency of struvite uroliths increased to 42 percent. During 2004, the number of struvite uroliths (44.9 percent) submitted to the Minnesota Urolith Center nudged past those containing calcium oxalate (44.3 percent) in frequency of occurrence (Table 2). The decrease in occurrence of naturally occurring calcium oxalate uroliths during the past two years may be associated with:
Database: A 4.5-year-old spayed female domestic shorthair cat was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital at the University of Minnesota because of gross hematuria and dysuria of four weeks' duration. Urocystoliths of unknown composition had been removed surgically when the cat was 1.5 years old. Since that time, the cat had been fed a commercially prepared dry adult maintenance diet.
Physical examination revealed that the cat was in good physical condition. She weighed 13 pounds. Rectal temperature, pulse rate and rhythm, and respiration rate and character were normal. Palpation of the abdomen revealed that the urinary bladder was thickened, contracted and painful. A grating sensation characteristic of uroliths was detected within the bladder lumen. Micturition induced during palpation revealed gross hematuria. No other abnormalities were detected.
Analysis of a urine sample collected by cystocentesis revealed findings typical of inflammation (i.e. hematuria, proteinuria and pyuria) and struvite crystalluria. The urine specific gravity was 1.050; the urine pH was 7.5 (reagent strip). Aerobic bacteria were not detected by the conventional quantitative culture method. A complete blood count and serum biochemistry profile were normal.