For many new veterinarians, the real education begins after graduation.
There’s so much knowledge and so many clinical skills to be crammed into four years of veterinary school, it’s no wonder that some new graduates are left to learn the bulk of the professional and personal skills they need in practice outside of the classroom.
Veterinary programs have been paying attention, though, and many schools are starting to adjust curricula to meet their students' changing needs. From financial literacy to soft skills to telemedicine, here’s how some veterinary schools are updating their programs for a changing profession.
University of Florida certifies veterinary business sense
Veterinarians’ discomfort with the business side of veterinary medicine has highlighted the need for more training in this area across the profession. At the University of Florida College of Veterinary Medicine in Gainesville, Florida, clinical assistant professor Martha Mallicote, DVM, works on helping students develop business skills in veterinary school. Although the school has long offered certificate programs at the club level, the graduating class of 2013 was the first to participate in a new veterinary certificate offered by the school with more rigorous education in both business and personal finance.
Dr. Mallicote believes it’s important to expand these offerings to veterinary students, who struggle to manage their school debt and business operations later on as practice owners.
“There’s a little bit of fear,” she says. “It’s very funny to me how veterinarians and scientists love data, but you put a dollar sign in front of it and they’re like ‘no way.’”
The program is optional, Dr. Mallicote adds, but about a third of veterinary students are now earning the certificate before graduation. The program consists of six courses worth 10 credit hours offered throughout students' third and fourth years.
It’s too early to say how much the program is impacting practice ownership, because many of the first graduates with the certificate are just four to five years out in practice, but the college is starting to collect quantitative data.
Feedback from certificate graduates does indicate that the coursework helped them interview for first jobs or negotiate salaries.
“It seems to make them more marketable. There are a lot of practice owners looking for people to buy into their practice,” Dr. Mallicote says. “Knowing that you’re hiring a graduate who’s really interested in buying into a practice makes them more desirable.”
These initiatives are applauded by University of Florida veterinary school dean James W. Lloyd, DVM, PhD. “At our college of veterinary medicine, we really emphasize day-one competencies—not just clinical skills, but also communication, emotional intelligence, management, the ability to work in teams and leadership,” Dr. Lloyd says. “We teach clinical skills through emergency and critical care, primary care and dentistry in our hospital as well as through practice-based clerkships and shelter medicine, which take place in non-academic settings.”
Lincoln Memorial starts technical skills training early
At Lincoln Memorial University College of Veterinary Medicine in Harrogate, Tennessee, faculty are teaching and evaluating technical skills throughout the veterinary program rather than waiting until clinical rotations begin.
“Knowledge is key to becoming a good practitioner, but it’s not the only thing you would need,” says Julie Williamson, DVM, MS, AFAMEE, the school’s director of small animal clinical skills. “The best practitioners are the ones who not only have clinical knowledge, but clinical skills and professional skills, and who can work more closely with the veterinary care team. … We teach clinical skills in a way that allows our students to develop skills sequentially.”
To accomplish this, the school weaves these skills into early lecture-based courses, where students are presented with opportunities to get hands-on experience. They get a firsthand look at concepts they learn in lecture through skills labs and demonstrations that will provide a skill base for their later clinical rotations, she says. (See “Faster clinical finesse” at right.)
“We have [an] expectation for students to demonstrate competencies before they ever begin their clinical year,” Dr. Williamson says. “We’re working to try and fill that gap.”
The school also is expanding how it teaches communication and professional skills so that by graduation students are better able to communicate their plan of care and recommendations to pet owners.
Texas A&M focuses on technical skills as well as not-so-soft soft skills
While individual programs are adapting to meet changing student needs across the country, some schools are taking the route of a full curriculum review. Texas A&M University’s College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences in College Station, Texas, recently conducted a major curriculum analysis that started in 2014 and was completed with cooperation from both short- and long-term graduates, employers and faculty members.
The final result was an action report that included suggestions for closing gaps in the school’s curriculum, says Karen Cornell, DVM, PhD, DACVS, the university’s associate dean for professional programs, with changes rolled out to first-year veterinary students at the start of this academic year.
The report suggested more focus on preparing students in problem-solving, critical thinking and critical reasoning. It also indicated a need for increased mastery of communication and other professional skills, like financial literacy, she says.
“We also know that wellness is an important issue in our profession, including work-life balance,” Dr. Cornell says. “That’s something we took very seriously and addressed significantly in our curriculum.”
What changed? The school added a series of professional and clinical skills courses for the first three years of the veterinary program with three streams—clinical hands-on skills, critical thinking and professional skills.
The hands-on clinical skills portion provides additional training and focus on technical proficiencies for ultrasound and physical exam, for example.
For critical thinking, the school is using a published model adapted for veterinary medicine that helps students use a process of reasoning to think through cases—instead of passively absorbing information, she says.
In the third stream for professional skills, students learn how to better communicate with pet owners and colleagues. Students are challenged early on to enter a mock exam room and take histories on patients. They must collect and assess information from an actor posing as a pet owner to formulate a possible diagnosis and explain what’s happening with the patient to the layperson.
The professional skills stream also includes the input of a certified financial planner on personal and professional finance. Topics covered include personal budgeting, credit scores, credit cards, student loans, personal wellness, interviewing skills, contract negotiation and cultural competency in dealing with diverse pet owner populations.
“People call these ‘soft skills,’ which I think is crazy, because these are professional skills required of students to be successful as professional veterinarians,” Dr. Cornell says.
The school is also working on a plan to incorporate more training on telemedicine and telehealth. The plan is to develop a way to introduce and reinforce these concepts early in the program, then allow students to demonstrate skills by their fourth year. Dr. Cornell says veterinarians, like physicians, are increasingly being asked to deliver care where and how clients need it.
“I think one of the things we need to reinforce is that that we’ve moved from doctor-centered care to relationship-centered care,” Dr. Cornell says. “Working with a client means more than just providing direct orders.”