Differentiating between acute and chronic kidney disease - Veterinary Medicine
Medicine Center
DVM Veterinary Medicine Featuring Information from:


Differentiating between acute and chronic kidney disease
When dogs and cats have kidney disease, it can be a puzzle determining whether the problem has just developed or has been ongoing. These diagnostics can help you piece the puzzle together to make that distinction so you can provide optimal care and give owners the most accurate prognosis for their pets.


15. Langston CE, Cowgill LD, Spano JD. Applications and outcomes of hemodialysis in cats: a review of 29 cases. J Vet Intern Med 1997;11(6):348-345.

16. Bodey AR, Michell AR. Epidemiological study of blood pressure in domestic dogs. J Small Anim Pract 1996;37:116-125.

17. Cortadellas O, del Palacio MJ, Bayon A, et al. Systemic hypertension in dogs with leishmaniasis: prevalence and clinical consequences. J Vet Intern Med 2006;20;941-947.

18. Anderson LJ, Fisher EW. The blood pressure in canine interstitial nephritis. Res Vet Sci 1968;9;304-313.

19. Cowgill LD, Kallet AJ, Recognition and management of hypertension in the dog. In: Kirk RW, ed. Current veterinary therapy VIII. Philadelphia, Pa: WB Saunders,1983;1025-1028.

20. Rapoport GS, Stepien RL. Direct arterial blood pressure measurement in 54 dogs presented for systemic hypertension screening 1998-2001, in Proceedings. 11th Eur Coll Vet Int Med Ann Cong 2001:62.

21. Buranakarl C, Ankanaporn K, Thammacharoen S, et al. Relationships between degree of azotemia and blood pressure, urine protein:creatinine ratio, and fractional excretion of electrolytes in dogs with renal azotaemia. Vet Res Commun 2007;31(3):323-334.

22. Kobayashi DL, Peterson ME, Graves TK, et al. Hypertension in cats with chronic renal failure or hyperthyroidism. J Vet Intern Med 1990;4:58-62.

23. Stiles J, Polzin DJ, Bistner SI, The prevalence of retinopathy in cats with systemic hypertension and chronic renal failure or hyperthyroidism. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc 1994;30:564-572.

24. Syme HM, Barber PJ, Markwell PJ, et al. Prevalence of systolic hypertension in cats with chronic renal failure at initial evaluation. J Am Vet Med Assoc 2002;220:1799-1804.

25. Francey T, Cowgill LD. Hypertension in dogs with severe acute renal failure. J Vet Intern Med 2004;18:418(A).

26. Brown S, Atkins C, Bagley R, et al. ACVIM consensus statement: guidelines for the identification, evaluation and management of systemic hypertension in dogs and cats. J Vet Intern Med 2007;21:542-558.

27. Crispin SM, Mould JRB. Systemic hypertensive disease and the feline fundus. Vet Ophthalmol 2001;4(2):131-140.

28. Chetboul V, Lefebvre HP, Pinhas C, et al. Spontaneous feline hypertension: clinical and echocardiographic abnormalities, and survival rate. J Vet Intern Med 2003;17:89-95.

29. Maggio F, DeFrancesco TC, Atkins CE, et al. Ocular lesions associated with systemic hypertension in cats: 69 cases (1985-1998). J Am Vet Med Assoc 2000;217:695-702.

30. Littman MP. Spontaneous systemic hypertension in 24 cats. J Vet Intern Med 1994;8:79-86.


Click here